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guidelines_for_word_formation

Proto-Germanic to Folksprak

[pg]-gramm [fs]-gramm remarks/examples
*b b [b] at the beginning of a syllable *baunō > boen [bøːn], *brōþēr > broder [ˈbroːdər]
v [v] at the end of a syllable *weƀaną > wéve [ʋeːvə], Can be bb [b] if the consonant was geminated or *ƀj, *reƀja > ribb [rɪb]
*w w [ʋ] at the beginning of a syllable *wīdaz > wid [ʋiːd]
*w w [w] or [ʊ] at the end of a syllable Inter-vocally is [w], at the end of a word makes a [ʊ] diphthong with the stem vowel, grǣwaz > graw [graʊ], *snaiwaz > snéw [sneːʊ]
*sk sh [ʃ] in almost all cases *skamō > sham [ʃaːm], *fiskaz > fish [fɪʃ]
*h h [h] at the beginning of a syllable *handuz > hand [hand]
*h h [x] at the end of syllable This is the commonest evolution, *nahts > naht [naxt], *hauhaz > hoeh [høːx]
*h j [j] or [ɪ] at the end of syllable, sometimes evolves to j Inter-vocally is [j], at the end of a word becomes [ɪ] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel, *þleuhan > flyje [ˈflyːjə], *slahaną > slaje [ˈslaːjə], *tehun > tejn [teɪn]
*hw w [ʋ] at the beginning of a syllable *hwar > war [ʋaːr]
*hw j [j] or [ɪ] at the end of a syllable Inter-vocally is [j], at the end of a word becomes [ɪ] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel, *sehwaną > seje [ˈseːjə], *taihwō > tej [teɪ]
*hr r [r] at the beginning of a syllable *hringaz > ring [rɪŋ], At the end of a syllable is -jr [-ɪr] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel: *tahrą > tajr [taɪr]
*hl l [l] *hlahjaną > lahe [ˈlaːxə], At the end of a syllable is -jl [-ɪl] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel: *hanhilō > hejl [heɪl]
*g g [g] at the beginning of a syllable This is also the most common evolution in other positions of the syllable – but see below, *geƀaną > géve [ˈgeːve], *dagaz > dag [daːg]
*g+*j gg [g] *brugjō > brygg [brʏg]
*g j [j] or [ɪ] at the end of a syllable This only happens when the majority of the source languages have lost the *g, but it’s still retained by a minority or retained in some cognate words, Inter-vocally is [j], at the end of a word makes a +[ɪ] diphthong with the stem vowel, *seglam > sejl [seɪl], *magaþiz > majd [maid]
t [t] at the beginning of a syllable *þrǣduz > trad [traːd], *þankōną > tanke [ˈtaŋkə]
d [d] at the end of a syllable *baþą > bad [baːd], *erþō > érd [ɛrd]
d [d] sometimes at the beginning of syllable This is mostly in pronouns, articles, and some particles/adverbs, This is when evolves to d [d] in Scandinavian languages and to voiced th [ð] in English, Whether the cognate is voiced in English and/or Scandinavian is the deciding factor here, *þauh > doh [doːh], *þū > du [duː]
*f f [f] at the start of syllables *fadēr > fader [ˈfaːdər]
*f v [v] at the end of syllables *hōfaz > hov [hoːv], If it is geminated or *f+*j, then becomes ff [f]
i [iː] *rīdaną > ride [ˈriːdə], *hwītaz wit [ʋiːt]
o [oː] *blōdam > blod [bloːd], *mōþar > moder [ˈmoːdər]
u [uː] *hūsą > hus [huːs], *rūhaz > ruj [ruːɪ]
a [aː] *dǣdiz > dad [daːd], *ǣlaz > al [aːl]
*ai é [eː] É in stressed syllables is optionally written with a acute accent, This is to disambiguate it from e used as a schwa [ə], It should written with an acute accent in dictionaries and language learning materials, In normal writing, intended for fluent readers, it can be left off, *haimaz > hém [heːm], *dailijan > déle [deːlə]
*au oe [øː] *baunō > boen [bøːn], *hauƀudą > hoeved [ˈhøːvəd]
*eu y [yː] *deupaz > dyp [dyːp], *freusaną > fryse [ˈfryːsə]
*a a, [a] or [aː] short or long depending on following geminated consonants *strandaz > strand [strand], *hwalaz > wal [ʋaːl]
*e é, [ɛ] or é [eː] short or long depending on following geminated consonants *wegaz > wég [ʋeːg], *sternan, *sterran > stérr [stɛr]
*e i [ɪ] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation and if the following consonants are geminated *lepjōn » lipp [lɪp], *senn, *senþ- > sinn [sɪn]
*u u, [ʊ] or o [ɔ] or o [oː] short or long depending on following geminated consonants Short versions change to o if the majority of source languages do, *under > under [ˈʊndər], *hurnaz > horn [hɔrn], *uƀer > over [ˈoːvər]
*a é [ɛ] or é [eː] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation *wadjōną > wédde [ˈʋɛdə], *bazjan > bére [ˈbeːrə]
*u y [ʏ] or y [yː] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation, long or short depending if the following consonants are geminated *hrugjaz > rygg [rʏg], *uƀilaz > yvel [ˈyːvəl]
oe [øː] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation WG *grōnja- > groen [grøːn], WG *fōljan > foele [ˈføːlə]
y [yː] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation *kūhska, *kūhski > kysh [kʏʃ], WG *fūir > fyr [fyːr]
ae [ɛː] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation Latin caseus WG *kǣsjus > kaes [kɛːs], *fǣgjan > faege [ˈfɛːgə]
*a, *e, *i, *o, *u etc. in unstressed syllables generalize to e [ə] or are lost altogether Whether to drop an unstressed vowel or retain it is generally determined by what has occurred in the majority of the source languages *ga-nōga > genog [gəˈnoːg], *augōn > oege [ˈøːgə] *haƀukaz > havek [ˈhaːvək], *hōraz > hor [hoːr]

Latin, Græco-Latin, Romance and French to Folksprak

Guidelines for bringing Romance internationalisms into Folksprak.

Generally based on the Interlingua or French form.

The form of most of the consonants are retained and are pronounced as they are spelled, but with the following changes applied.

The form of most of the vowels are retained and are pronounced as they are spelled – the vowel length is long or short depending on whether the following consonant is singular or a cluster, but with the following changes applied.

[xx]-gramm [fs]-gramm remarks/examples
*c not before e, i, y k [k] cablo > kabel [ˈkaːbəl], directe > dirékt [dɪˈrɛkt]
*c before æ, e, i, y c [ʦ] cemento > cemént [ʦɛˈmɛnt], decembre > decémber [dɛˈʦɛmbər]. A word final *c is not possible, so the normal solution is that if any of the source languages pronouce an extra vowel after the *c in their cognates, then a final e [ə] should be added: ekscellénce [ɛksʦɛˈlɛnʦə] not *ekscellénc If none of the source languages have an extra vowel, then *c should be changed to s [s]: dans [dans] not *danc.
*-ti- before another vowel -ci- [-ʦj-] station > stacion [staˈʦjoːn], absentia > abséncie [abˈsɛnʦjə], patiente > paciént [paˈʦjɛnt]
*ch (Græco-Latin chi) k [k] character > karakter [kaˈraktər], technica > teknik [tɛkˈniːk]
*ch (French/Spanish ch) sh [ʃ] French revanche > revansh [rɛˈvanʃ], chance > shance [ˈʃanʦə], broche > brosh [brɔʃ]
*g (French soft g before e, i, y) gj [ʒ] This only happens when the majority of the source languages have changed the pronunciation from the default for g. So normally the English cognate will have [ʤ] and the German cognate with have [ʒ]. gesto > gjéste [ˈʒɛstə], bagage > bagagje [baˈgaʒə]
*ph (Græco-Latin phi) f [f] photographo > fotograf [fɔtɔˈgraːf]
*th (Græco-Latin theta) t [t] theatro > teater [tɛˈaːtər]. apotheca > apoték [apɔˈteːk]
*x ks [ks] luxo > lukse [ˈlʊksə], extreme > ekstrém [ɛksˈtreːm]
*qu kw [kʋ] quadrato > kwadrat [kʋaˈdraːt], adequate > adekwat [adɛˈkʋaːt]
*que (French que) k [k] When French *que is used to designate a [k] sound before a *e or *i, then is changed to k [k]. French banquet > bankétt [baŋˈkɛt], French liqueur > likoer [lɪˈkøːr]
*u (French u) y [ʏː] or [yː], long or short depending on following consonants (single or clusters) This only happens when the majority of the source languages have adopted the French pronunciation and assimilated it to their native orthography. In more cases *u > u [ʊ] or [uː]. Fr brusque > brysk [brʏsk], Fr brochure > broshyre [brɔˈʃyːrə]
(French é) éé [eː] only in a word final position Fr cliché > klishéé [klɪˈʃeː]. Fr allée > alléé [aˈleː]
*ai (French ai) ae [ɛː] generally when changed to ä and æ in German and Scandinavian, the cognate in Folksprak will have ae Note that the English cognate may have ea or ai, and the Dutch ei, e or ai: Fr déta > detael [dɛˈtɛːl], Fr portrait > portraet [pɔrˈtrɛːt], Fr saison > saeson [sɛːˈzoːn]. Fr fontaine > fontaen [fɔnˈtɛːn]
*eu (French eu) > oe [øː] This applies only to French eu. Græco-Latin eu remains as eu Fr régisseur > regjissoer [rɛʒɪˈsøːr]. Fr sérieux > serioes [sɛrɪˈøːs]. Fr adieu > adioe [adˈjøː]
*ou (French ou) u [uː] or [ʊ] depending on following consonants (single or clusters) Fr douche > dush [dʊʃ]. Fr tour > tur [tuːr]. Fr limousine > limusin [lɪmʊˈsiːn].
*eu (Græco-Latin eu) eu [ɛʊ] Unlike French *eu, Græco-Latin *eu remains unchanged: neurologo > neurolog [nɛʊrɔˈloːg]. Europa > Europa [ɛʊˈroːpa]
(Græco-Latin æ) é [eː] or [ɛ] depending on following consonants (single or clusters) Unlike German and Danish, but like American English, Dutch and Swedish, Græco-Latin merges with é. L præcisus > precise > precis [prɛˈʦiːs]. Latin æra > era > éra [ˈeːra]
*a (from Latin *-tas, *-tatem) ae [ɛː] Latin universitas/universitatem > universitate > universitaet [ʊnɪvɛrsɪˈtɛːt]. L qualitas/qualitatem > qualitate > kwalitaet [kʋalɪˈtɛːt]
*a (from Latin *-alis) a [aː] Latin actualis > actual > aktual [aktʊˈaːl], Latin realis > real > real [rɛˈaːl]
*-ar, -*er, -*-ir (from Latin -are and other Romance verb infinitive suffixes) -aer- [-ˈɛːr-] diriger > dirigaere [dɪrɪˈgɛːrə], nivellar > nivellaere [nɪvɛˈlɛːrə]

German to Folksprak

[de]-gramm [fs]-gramm examples
ö o or sometimes to e hören > hor; zwölf > tvelf
ü u für > fur, müssen > mute
ei i or sometimes e Eis > is, mein > min, frei > fri, ein(e) > en
au u or sometimes o Frau > fru, Haus > hus, Raum > rum, auch > ok, trauen > true
eu u neu > nu, deutsch > dutisk
ch k or elimination ich > ik, doch > dok, Buch > buk, nicht > nit
z, ss and ß t Zahl > tal, Zunge > tuq, zu > to, hassen > hate, müssen > mute, groß > grot
sch sk or sometimes c or s Schuld > skuld, herrschen > herske, schwach > svak
w v wollen > vile, Wolf > volf
b (not as first letter) v haben > have, leben > leve
f (not as first letter) p auf > up, helfen > helpe

English to Folksprak

Since modern English has a very unphonetical orthography (due to various reasons), the following transitions are not as “typical” as they are for “German to Folksprak” or “Bokmål to Folksprak”. They are rather considered as possible transitions.

[en]-gramm [fs]-gramm examples
e(e) i we > vi, free > fri
ea e instead > insted
oo u good > gud, blood > blud, room > rum
ou u group > grup, out > ut, our > ur, round > rund
w(h) v water > vater, to will > vile, white > vit, what > vat
th d that > dat, there > der, the > de
c k to can > kane, to come > kome
sh sk or sometimes s fish > fisk, shoe > sku, shall > skal

Norwegian (Bokmål) to Folksprak

[nb]-gramm [fs]-gramm examples
å o or sometimes u å gå > goe, > no
o u for > fur, blod > blud, å troe > true
y i or sometimes u syve > siv, ny > nu, å frykte > fruke
ø o død > dod, å høre > hore
æ e å lære > lere

General guidelines

Words should be:

  1. As internationally recognisable (within the Germanic world) and/or frequent as possible
  2. Not confusable with other words
  3. Ideally, not false friends
  4. Structurally simple
guidelines_for_word_formation.txt · Last modified: 2016/05/26 21:05 by fenris