Folksprak Draft
Phonology and Orthography
IPA-sound Latin letter Representation Runic Representation Folksprak Example English Example
l L/l leve lima
m M/m man mike
n N/n nit november
ŋ Ng/ng lang ring
g G/g gud golf
k K/k kome kilo
b B/b bue bravo
p P/p rupe papa
d D/d dag delta
t T/t tid tango
v V/v vind victor
f F/f fut foxtrot
s S/s smal sierra
h H/h hus hotel
ɾ R/r rask --
j J/j jar yankee
i I/i grid needle
e E/e sted ~ bet
a A/a fader ~ bath
o O/o fogel ~ fox
u U/u blu cool
ø Ö/ö, alternatively Oy/oy ᛟᛇ skön/skoyn ~ turn
y Ü/ü, alternatively Uy/uy ᚢᛇ süd/suyd --

It is permitted to pronounce the sounds a little differently, for example v as ʋ or s as z, whilst the sounds from the table above are the default.

The runic writing is not meant to be used in regular texts. Use it only for purposes like art, etc.!

We have discussed many times whether to include a x-like sound. On one hand, without it, some words were not easy to derive (e.g. the Proto Germanic nahts (English: night)). On the other hand we found that the sound is very disconcerting to those, who don't have it in the phonology of their mother tongue. Eventually we have decided to exclude it from the draft, since it seemed to be too much of a trouble maker; finding words was not that much of an issue in the end.

The letters ö and ü were not included inconsiderately. Effectively every Germanic language has an ø-like sound in its phonology, but the main reason for the inclusion of these sounds was that altering the vowels of affected words to "near" vowels (e.g. iyu) most of the times resulted in disconcerting and unsatisfying creations. However the modern Germanic languages often feature vowel shifts throughout their natural evolution; some switching to the one and some switching to the other. Therefore we felt it was more convenient to have these sounds as compromises and connectors between the languages.

We also struggled to find proper written representations of these sounds. One possibility was to use the IPA-like symbols ø and y, like e.g. Norwegian does. Unfortunatelly this had taken away the possibility to have the alternative writings oy and uy, which we considered important, since not everybody can easily type non-standard Latin letters. So we arranged to use diaeresis, like German and Swedish does.


The word stock of Folksprak is ‐ with minor exceptions ‐ derived from the modern Germanic languages (e.g. English, German, Swedish, …) and/or their precursors (e.g. Old English, Old Norse, Proto Germanic, etc.). Branches which no longer emerge today (e.g. the East Germanic languages like Gothic), were not incorporated.

The following table gives an overview about the typical transitions of phones from Proto-Germanic to some of todays natural Germanic languages and Folksprak, along with example words in square brackets:

gem eng afr nld yid deu dan nob swe nno isl flk
-ea-, -ow-
-ee-, -eeu-
-ee-, -eeuw-
-ø-, -e-
-ø-, -jø-
-jó-, -ær-
-ea-, -e-, -ey-
-oo-, -o-
-oo-, -o-
-au-, -o-, -ö-
-ø-, -øy-
-ü-, -üh-
-ee-, -i-, -ie-
-ie-, -i-, -ui-, -ij-
-ie-, -i-, -ü-
-y-, -ju-
-ju-, -y-
? -jú-, -jó-
-ea-, -eu-
-uu-, -ie

more entries
Personal Pronouns
nor/nom nor/acc nor/dat ref/nom ref/acc ref/dat pos/nom pos/acc pos/dat pos/gen
sin/1st/com ek ~ i mek ~ me to mek ~ (to) me ek (selv) ~ ? mek (selv) ~ myself to mek (selv) ~ (to) myself min ~ my/mine min ~ my/mine to min ~ (to) my/mine av min ~ of my/mine
sin/2nd/com du ~ you, thou dek ~ you, thee to dek ~ (to) you, (to) thee du (selv) ~ ? dek (selv) ~ yourself to dek (selv) ~ (to) yourself din ~ your/yours, thy/thine din ~ your/yours, thy/thine to din ~ (to) your/yours, (to) thy/thine av din ~ of your/yours
sin/3rd/com hen ~ ? hem ~ ? to hem ~ ? hen selv ~ ? hen selv, sek ~ ? to hem selv, to sek ~ ? hens ~ ? hens ~ ? to hens ~ ? av hens ~ ?
sin/3rd/mas han ~ he ham ~ him to ham ~ (to) him han selv ~ ? han selv, sek ~ himself to ham selv, to sek ~ (to) himself hans ~ his hans ~ his to hans ~ (to) his av hans ~ of his
sin/3rd/fem hun ~ she hum ~ her to hum ~ (to) her hun selv ~ ? hen selv, sek ~ herself to hum selv, to sek ~ (to) herself huns ~ her/hers huns ~ her/hers to huns ~ (to) her/hers av huns ~ of her/hers
sin/3rd/neu hit ~ it hit ~ it to hit ~ (to) it hit selv ~ ? hit selv, sek ~ itself to hit selv, to sek ~ (to) itself hits ~ its hits ~ its to hits ~ (to) its av hits ~ of its
sin/imp/com man ~ one, you man ~ one, you to man ~ (to) one, (to) you man selv ~ ? man selv, sek ~ oneself, yourself to man selv, to sek ~ (to) oneself, (to) yourself mans ~ one's, your/yours mans ~ one's, your/yours to mans ~ (to) one's, (to) your/yours av mans ~ of one's, of your/yours
plu/1st/com vi ~ we us ~ us to us ~ (to) us vi selv ~ ? us (selv) ~ ourselves to us (selv) ~ (to) ourselves ur ~ our/ours ur ~ our/ours to ur ~ (to) our/ours av ur ~ of our/ours
plu/2nd/com je ~ you (all) ju ~ you (all) to ju ~ (to) you (all) je selv ~ ? ju (selv) ~ yourselves to ju (selv) ~ (to) yourselves jer ~ your/yours jer ~ your/yours to jer ~ (to) your/yours av jer ~ of your/yours
plu/3rd/com di ~ they dim ~ them to dim ~ (to) them di selv ~ ? dim selv, sek ~ themselves to dim selv, to sek ~ (to) themselves dir ~ their/theirs dir ~ their/theirs to dir ~ (to) their/theirs av dir ~ of their/theirs
plu/imp/com maner ~ you, they maner ~ you, them to maner ~ (to) you, (to) them maner selv ~ ? maner selv, sek ~ themselves, yourselves to maner selv, to sek ~ (to) themselves, (to)to yourselves maners ~ their/theirs, your/yours maners ~ their, your to maners ~ (to) their/theirs, (to) your/yours av maners ~ of their/theirs, of your/yours

Since the word man simply means human being, it can be understood as an implicit way to express an abstract actor; similar words like lüd (people) or di can be used as well.

The honorific salutation is expressed by the plural form je; however it should be avoided in usual speech in favor of the singular form du.

A reflexive genitive can be formed by inserting the word egen (own), for example Han (A) hav givt to ham (B) hans egen buk. ~ He (A) has given (to) him (B) his own book. (A's book was given to B).

When finding appropriate personal pronouns, the most intricate cases were the 3rd person singular and the 2nd person plural; both turned out to be very diverse among the modern Germanic languages. While for the 2nd person plural we could find a sufficient satisfying solution after a while, the 3rd person singular kept defying. In the end we came to the settlement to use a Swedish-like solution including the pronoun hen, which is not bound to any sexus so that it can be used for actors in general.


This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

int rel def den uni und neg
con vilk ~ which vilk ~ which jen ~ that dis ~ this al ~ every, all ed ~ some ni, nit ed ~ no
thi vilk ding, vat ~ what vilk ding, vat ~ what jen ding, dat ~ that dis ding ~ this al ding, alvat ~ everything ed ding, edvat ~ something, anything ni ding, nivat ~ nothing
per vilk man, ve ~ who vilk man, ve ~ who jen man ~ that person, that one dis man ~ this person, this one al man, alve ~ everyone, everybody ed man, edve ~ someone, somebody ni man, nive ~ no one, nobody
pos av vilk man, ves ~ whose av vilk man, ves ~ whose av jen man ~ that one's av dis man ~ this one's av al man, alves ~ everyone's av ed man, edves ~ someone's av ni man, nives ~ no one's
tim vilk tid, van ~ when vilk tid, van ~ when jen tid, dan ~ then dis tid, no ~ now al tid, alvan ~ always ed tid, edvan ~ sometimes, anytime, ever ni tid, nivan ~ never
loc vilk sted, var ~ where vilk sted, var ~ where jen sted, dar ~ there dis sted, har ~ here al sted, alvar ~ everywhere ed sted, edvar ~ somewhere ni sted, nivar ~ nowhere
dir to vilk sted, varto ~ whereto, whither to vilk sted, varto ~ whereto, whither to jen sted, darto ~ (to) there, thither to dis sted, harto ~ (to) here, hither to al sted, alto ~ ? to ed sted, edto ~ (to) anywhere to ni sted, nito ~ (to) nowhere, nowhither
cau fur vilk grund, varfur ~ why fur vilk grund, varfur ~ why fur jen grund, darfur ~ ? fur dis grund, harfur ~ ? fur al grund, alfur ~ ? fur ed grund, edfur ~ ? fur ni grund, nifur ~ ?
man vilk mot, hur ~ how vilk mot, hur ~ how jen mot, so ~ so dis mot, so ~ so al mot ~ ? ed mot ~ ? ni mot ~ ?
typ vilk slag ~ what kind of vilk slag ~ ? jen slag, solk ~ such dis slag ~ ? al slag ~ ? ed slag ~ ? ni slag ~ ?
amo vilk mang ~ how many, how much vilk mang ~ how many, how much jen mang ~ ? dis mang ~ ? al mang ~ ? ed mang ~ ? ni mang ~ ?

Some of these words are very unlikely to ever get used (e.g. ni slag). Nevertheless they exist and are listed for completeness.


This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

pos/abs pos/rel pos/att dir/abs dir/rel
x00 foran ~ in front foran (av) ~ in front of forer ~ fore, front for ~ forward for (av) ~ in front of
x01 bakan ~ back bakan (av) ~ behind baker ~ rear, hind bak ~ backward, behind bak (av) ~ behind
x02 uvan ~ on top uvan (av) ~ over, above uver ~ upper uv ~ up uv (av) ~ over, above
x03 nedan ~ below nedan (av) ~ under neder ~ lower ned ~ down ned (av) ~ under
x04 inan ~ inside inan (av) ~ in, inside from iner ~ inner in ~ in in (av) ~ into
x05 utan ~ outside utan (av) ~ out, outside from uter ~ outer ut ~ out ut (av) ~ out of
x06 upan ~ upon upan (av) ~ thereon uper ~ ? up ~ on up (av) ~ onto
x07 vinstan ~ left vinstan (av) ~ left from vinster ~ left vinst ~ to the left vinst (av) ~ to the left of
x08 hegan ~ right hegan (av) ~ right from heger ~ right heg ~ to the right heg (av) ~ to the right of
x24 vedan ~ ? vedan (av) ~ ? veder ~ ? ved ~ ? ved (av) ~ ?
x09 melan ~ inbetween melan (av) ~ between meler ~ middle mel ~ between mel (av) ~ between
x10 ? ~ ? fur ~ for ? ~ ? ? ~ ? fur ~ ?
x11 ? ~ ? gen ~ against ? ~ ? ? ~ ? gen ~ ?
x12 ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ? fra ~ from
x13 ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ? to ~ to
x14 ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ? til ~ til
x15 ? ~ ? med ~ with ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ?
x16 ? ~ ? an ~ without ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ?
x17 ? ~ ? bi ~ by ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ?
x18 ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ? durg ~ through
x19 ? ~ ? ? ~ along ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ?
x20 ? ~ ? ? ~ despite ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ?
x21 ? ~ ? ? ~ according to ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ?
x22 ? ~ ? ? ~ away from ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ?
x23 av ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ? ? ~ ?

Some examples:

  • Ek skal varte foran. ~ I will wait in front.
  • Du mut blive bakan. ~ You must stay in the back.
  • Han sta nedan de brüg. ~ He stands under the bridge.
  • Hun flüg uvan de volker. ~ She flies above the clouds.
  • Vi kan gae in de timer. ~ We can go into the room.
  • Je skal löpe ut de hus. ~ You shall run out of the house.
Word Functions

This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

affix type_from type_to description example
"far-" ["verb"] ["verb"] "Alters the meaning of the verb to a somehow negative version (difficult to explain :))" {"word":"fargive","translations":{"eng":["forgive"]}}
"-ar" ["verb"] ["noun"] "A person, that does what is described in the referred verb" {"word":"sprekar","translations":{"eng":["speaker"]}}
"-ing" ["verb"] ["noun"] "Something that arises from the referred verb" {"word":"giving","translations":{"eng":["gift"]}}
"-rid" ["verb"] ["noun"] "The act described by the referred verb" {"word":"hatrid","translations":{"eng":["hatred","hating"]}}
"-(e)t" ["verb"] ["attribute"] "The attribute to have done a certain action" {"word":"hört","translations":{"eng":["heard"]}}
"-end" ["verb"] ["attribute"] "The attribute to be doing a certain action" {"word":"singend","translations":{"eng":["singing"]}}
"-ber" ["verb"] ["attribute"] "The possibility to do, what the referred verb describes" {"word":"denkber","translations":{"eng":["thinkable"]}}
"-isk" ["noun"] ["attribute"] "Belonging to the referred object" {"word":"svedisk","translations":{"eng":["swedish"]}}
"-ig" ["noun"] ["attribute"] "With the referred object" {"word":"bludig","translations":{"eng":["bloody"]}}
"-lik" ["noun"] ["attribute"] "Having the abilities of the referred object" {"word":"bruderlik","translations":{"eng":["brotherly"]}}
"-en" ["attribute"] ["verb"] "To make something have the referred ability" {"word":"harden","translations":{"eng":["harden","make hard"]}}
"-hed" ["attribute"] ["noun"] "The abstract attribute described by the referred property" {"word":"frihed","translations":{"eng":["freedom"]}}
"un-" ["attribute"] ["attribute"] "Negation of the referred attribute" {"word":"unfri","translations":{"eng":["unfree"]}}

Some complex examples:

  • unmanlikhed ~ inhumanity
  • sejberening ~ visualization
  • kraftigenar ~ fortifier

See Munin-Dictionary

In Folksprak verbs are not conjugated for different participants (personae), number of actors (numeri) or grammatical genders (genera).

Infinite Verbforms

The infinitive is formed by appending -e to the verb stem, e.g. skrive ~ to write. In some cases it is mandatory to mark the infinitive with the special particle tu in order to form the extended intfinitive, e.g.: Han hop tu finde en svart sten. ~ He hopes to find a black stone..

Specify cases for extended infinitive

The active participle is formed by appending -end to the verb stem, e.g. skrivend ~ writing.

The passive participle is formed by appending -et to the verb stem, e.g. skrivet ~ written. If pronouncable, the e in the ending can be omitted, e.g. skrivt.

Timeforms and modes

This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

The following table lists the basic timeforms found in Folksprak and how they are built in the indicative mode.

name description scheme example
"Nutid" "For expressing an action in the present" "[mainverb:stem]" {"original":"Ek skriv.","translations":{"eng":["I write."],"deu":["Ich schreibe."],"nob":["Jeg skriver."]}}
"Löpend fortid" "For expressing an action in the past" "[mainverb:stem+(e)de]" {"original":"Ek skrivde.","translations":{"eng":["I wrote."],"deu":["Ich schrieb."],"nob":["Jeg skrev."]}}
"Slütet fortid" "For expressing an action in the past" "['hav'] + [mainverb:passive participle]" {"original":"Ek hav skrivt.","translations":{"eng":["I have written."],"deu":["Ich habe geschrieben."],"nob":["Jeg har skrevet."]}}
"Baktid" "For expressing an action in the future" "['skal'/'vil'] + [mainverb:infinitive]" {"original":"Ek skal skrive.","translations":{"eng":["I will write.","I am going to write."],"deu":["Ich werde schreiben."],"nob":["Jeg skal skrive.","Jeg vil skrive."]}}
"Baktid" "For expressing an action in the future" "['verd':flected] + [mainverb:active participle]" {"original":"Ek verd skrivend.","translations":{"eng":["I will write.","I am going to write."],"deu":["Ich werde schreiben."],"nob":["Jeg skal skrive.","Jeg vil skrive."]}}

These forms can be combined straightforward to form complex timeforms:

  • Ek havde skrivt. ~ I had written.
  • Ek skal have skrivt. ~ I will have written.

The imperative only exists in the present (with future meaning) for the 2nd person singular and plural. It is formed by using the bare stem of the verb, optionally followed by the personal pronoun (i.e. either du or je) in order to specify or emphasize the numerus. Examples: skriv!, skriv, je!.

There are two ways to form the subjunctive. One is to use the special modal verb vöre which can be understood as a wrapper for regular verbs. The other possibility is to use the adverbial particle maglik. Both can be applied to the indicative forms, e.g.: Ek vör have skrivt. ~ I would have written.


This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

In order to negate the meaning of a predicate, one shall place the word nit after the flected verb part of the predicate. Example: Di sej nit. ~ They don't see.

If the verb takes a direct object it is allowed to place the object before the nit. Example: Di sej us nit. ~ They don't see us.

Negations can also be expressed implicitly by using negative correlatives. Example: Di sej ing tid. ~ They never see.

Doubled negations (both explicit and implicit ones) cancel each other out. Example: Di sej nit ing tid. ~ They never don't see., They always see.


This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

The plural of a noun is formed by appending the syllable -er, e.g. dager ~ days.


Regular nouns can appear in two cases: nominative and genitive.

The base form of a noun is the nominative, which does not receive any marker.

The genitive is formed by appending the suffix -(e)s to the word, e.g. dages ~ days. The marker for the plural has to be applied first, e.g. dager(e)s ~ days.


The undefinite aspect of a singular noun is formed by using the article en, e.g. en dag ~ a day. Undefinite plural nouns don't have an article, e.g. dager ~ days.

The definite aspect of both singular and plural nouns is formed by using the article de, e.g. de dag ~ the day.

abstract aspect like in "sand is dry"

The following table summarizes the information of this section:

nom acc dat gen
sin/und en sten ~ a stone en sten ~ a stone to en sten ~ to a stone en stens, av en sten ~ a stones', of a stone
sin/def de sten ~ the stone de sten ~ the stone to de sten ~ to the stone de stens, av de sten ~ the stones', of the stone
plu/und stener ~ stones stener ~ stones to stener ~ to stones steners, av stener ~ stones', of stones
plu/def de stener ~ the stones de stener ~ the stones to de stener ~ to the stones de steners, av de stener ~ the stones', of the stones

Vi kan seje de huses vindöger ~ We can see the houses windows.

Sentence Structure

Underlined parts are mandatory components

Declarative Sentences

Scheme: "subject predicate object other parts."

Example: "De vulf hav givt en sten to de fogel po fordag."

Translation: The wolf has given a stone to the bird yesterday.

Interrogative Sentences

Scheme: "predicate:flected verb subject predicate:rest object other parts."

Example: "Hav de vulf givt en sten to de fogel po fordag?"

Translation: Has the wolf given a stone to the bird yesterday?

Imperative Sentences

Scheme: "predicate subject object other parts!"

Example: "Giv en sten to de fogel!"

Translation: Give a stone to the bird!

Dependent clauses
De grot diktator

Ek bid fur fargiving, dog ek vil nit are de verlds herskar — ek ar nit solk en man. Ek vil nit beherske er neddrüke et man, insted ek vil helpe de maner alvan on alvar: De judisk, de hejdisk, de farvig, de vit, …. Vi al skal helpe en de ander fur at vi kan leve inan en beter verld. Vi vil nit hate er farakte us. Dis verld hav rum fur al maner on ur erd ar so rik, at vi al kan ete nog. De levrid kan are so fri on skön; dog vi hav farlatet de veg.

Gridhed hav sükent de maners seler on hav fült de verld med hatrid; hit hav ledet us to elend on bludskedrid. Vi hav utvikelt raskhed, dog ur gester sta stil. Vi lat makiner verke fur us; ur vetrid hav makt us hokmudig on ur klughed hard on unfrendlik; vi denk altu mang on föl altu lit. Dog mer den makiner vi treng manlikhed; mer den klughed vi treng frendlikhed on gudhed. An dis egenheder, ur levrid ar frükridig on al ding ar lost.

Med de helprid av flügtüger on de radio vi ar narer en to de ander den et tid bak. Fur at de manskap kan bruke dis utfindinger fur en gud sak, hit mut leve med enhed on bruderlikhed. Selv nu mang tused in der verld kan höre min stem, mang tusend fartvivelt verer, kviner on smal kinder — ofaringer av en sistem, vilk fang on kvel unskuldig maner. Ek rup to al, vilk kan höre mek nu: Fartvivel nit! De elend skal farsvinde, van de gridhed farsvind on de biterhed av maner, vilk frük de manskaps forskridrid. De Maners hatrid skal farsvinde on diktarorer skal döe. Dan de kraft, vilk di hav takt fra de folk, skal kome bak to de folk. Selv ef mang blud ar skedet: Tu fegte fur de frihed ar en gud sak.

Fegtarer: Fegt nit fur tiraner; maner, vilk farakt ju on mak ju to sklaver; vilk vertskat nit jer levrid, vilk seg to ju, vat je skal make, true on föle! Di skend ju, föd ju, behandel ju lik kanon-föding. Fegt nit fur dis fardervt maner — makin-maner med makin-hövder on makin-herter! Je ar nit makiner, je ar nit direr, je ar maner. Lat de manlikhed blive inan jer herter! Je skal nit hate; bar de unlivt hat, de unlivt on de fardervt.

Fegtarer: Fegt nit fur de sklavskap! Fegt fur de frihed! Inan de 17. avsniding av de hajlig Lukas ar skrivt: ‚God ar inan al maner.‘ — nit bar inan en grup ut maner, insted inan al maner, inan ju. Je, de folk, hav de kraft; de kraft fur tu bue vapener, dog ok de kraft fur tu sprede gladhed. Je, de folk, hav de kraft fur tu make dis levrid fri on skön, fur tu make dis levrid en vunderfült sak. Darfur: Inan de nam av folkherskrid: Lat us bruke dis kraft! Lat us verde en! Lat us fegte fur en nü verld, fur en beter verld, vilk giv to de maner de magrid tu verke, vilk giv en eftertid to de jung on sikerhed to de eld. Ok de tiraner hav truent dis to us fur tu foe de vold, dog di hav lügt. Di mak nit san dir luving, di vil ni tid. Tiraner frien bar dim selv, dog de folk skal blive sklaver.

Lat us nu fegte fur tu upfüle dis luving. Lat us fegte fur tu make de verld fri, fur tu uvervinde landmarker, gridhed, hatrid on de untillatrid. Lat us fegte fur en verld med farstarid, en verld, var vetridskap on forskridrid skal lede to al mans gladhed.

Fegtarer: Inan de nam av folkherskrid: Lat us al verde en!

An attempt to translate the final speech from the famous Charlie Chaplin movie "The great dictator" (with some passages inspired by the German translation); the English original can be listened to on youtube; or in case you'd like to hear a more heart-wrenching version: accompanied by "Hans Zimmer - Time".