Folksprak Draft
Phonology and Orthography
IPA-sound Latin letter Representation Runic Representation Folksprak Example English Example
l L/l leve lima
m M/m man mike
n N/n nit november
ŋ Ng/ng lang ring
g G/g gud golf
k K/k kome kilo
b B/b bue bravo
p P/p rup papa
d D/d dag delta
t T/t tid tango
v V/v vind victor
f F/f fut foxtrot
s S/s smal sierra
h H/h hus hotel
ɾ R/r rod --
j J/j jar yankee
i I/i grid needle
e E/e sted ~ bet
a A/a fader ~ bath
o O/o fogel ~ fox
u U/u blu cool
ø Öö, alternatively Oyoy ᛟᛇ skön/skoyn ~ turn
y Üü, alternatively Uyuy ᚢᛇ süd/suyd --

It is permitted to pronounce the sounds a little differently, for example v as ʋ or s as z, whilst the sounds from the table above are the default.

The runic writing is not meant to be used in regular texts. Use it only for purposes like art, etc.!

We have discussed many times whether to include a x-like sound. On one hand, without it, some words were not easy to derive (e.g. the Proto Germanic nahts (English: night)). On the other hand we found that the sound is very disconcerting to those, who don't have it in the phonology of their mother tongue. Eventually we have decided to exclude it from the draft, since it seemed to be too much of a trouble maker; finding words was not that much of an issue in the end.

The letters ö and ü were not included inconsiderately. Effectively every Germanic language has an ø-like sound in its phonology, but the main reason for the inclusion of these sounds was that altering the vowels of affected words to "near" vowels (e.g. iyu) most of the times resulted in disconcerting and unsatisfying creations. However the modern Germanic languages often feature vowel shifts throughout their natural evolution; some switching to the one and some switching to the other. Therefore we felt it was more convenient to have these sounds as compromises and connectors between the languages.

We also struggled to find proper written representations of these sounds. One possibility was to use the IPA-like symbols ø and y, like e.g. Norwegian does. Unfortunatelly this had taken away the possibility to have the alternative writings oy and uy, which we considered important, since not everybody can easily type non-standard Latin letters. So we arranged to use diaeresis, like German and Swedish does.


The word stock of Folksprak is ‐ with minor ‐ exceptions derived from the modern Germanic languages (e.g. English, German, Swedish, …) and/or their precursors (e.g. Old English, Old Norse, Proto Germanic, etc.). However branches, which no longer emerge today (e.g. the East Germanic languages like Gothic), were not incorporated.

The following table gives an overview about the typical transitions of phones from Proto-Germanic to some of todays natural Germanic languages and Folksprak, along with example words in square brackets:

more entries
Proto Germanic English Dutch German Danish Bokmål-Norwegian Swedish Icelandic Folksprak
t07 -a-
t00 -au-
-ea-, -e-, -ey-
-oo-, -o-
-au-, -o-, -ö-
-ø-, -øy-
t01 -ō-
-ü-, -üh-
t02 -eu-
-ee-, -i-, -ie-
-ie-, -i-, -ui-, -ij-
-ie-, -i-, -ü-
-y-, -ju-
-ju-, -y-
-jú-, -jó-
t04 -iu-
-ea-, -eu-
-uu-, -ie
t05 -sk-
t06 s-
Personal Pronouns
nor/nom nor/acc nor/dat ref/nom ref/acc ref/dat pos/nom pos/acc pos/dat pos/gen
sin/1st/com ek ~ i mek ~ me to mek ~ (to) me ek (selv) ~ ? mek (selv) ~ myself to mek (selv) ~ (to) myself min ~ my/mine min ~ my/mine to min ~ (to) my/mine av min ~ of my/mine
sin/2nd/com du ~ you, thou dek ~ you, thee to dek ~ (to) you, (to) thee du (selv) ~ ? dek (selv) ~ yourself to dek (selv) ~ (to) yourself din ~ your/yours, thy/thine din ~ your/yours, thy/thine to din ~ (to) your/yours, (to) thy/thine av din ~ of your/yours
sin/3rd/com hen ~ ? hem ~ ? to hem ~ ? hen selv ~ ? hen selv, sek ~ ? to hem selv, to sek ~ ? hens ~ ? hens ~ ? to hens ~ ? av hens ~ ?
sin/3rd/mas han ~ he ham ~ him to ham ~ (to) him han selv ~ ? han selv, sek ~ himself to ham selv, to sek ~ (to) himself hans ~ his hans ~ his to hans ~ (to) his av hans ~ of his
sin/3rd/fem hun ~ she hum ~ her to hum ~ (to) her hun selv ~ ? hen selv, sek ~ herself to hum selv, to sek ~ (to) herself huns ~ her/hers huns ~ her/hers to huns ~ (to) her/hers av huns ~ of her/hers
sin/3rd/neu hit ~ it hit ~ it to hit ~ (to) it hit selv ~ ? hit selv, sek ~ itself to hit selv, to sek ~ (to) itself hits ~ its hits ~ its to hits ~ (to) its av hits ~ of its
sin/imp/com man ~ one, you man ~ one, you to man ~ (to) one, (to) you man selv ~ ? man selv, sek ~ oneself, yourself to man selv, to sek ~ (to) oneself, (to) yourself mans ~ one's, your/yours mans ~ one's, your/yours to mans ~ (to) one's, (to) your/yours av mans ~ of one's, of your/yours
plu/1st/com vi ~ we us ~ us to us ~ (to) us vi selv ~ ? us (selv) ~ ourselves to us (selv) ~ (to) ourselves ur ~ our/ours ur ~ our/ours to ur ~ (to) our/ours av ur ~ of our/ours
plu/2nd/com je ~ you (all) ju ~ you (all) to ju ~ (to) you (all) je selv ~ ? ju (selv) ~ yourselves to ju (selv) ~ (to) yourselves jer ~ your/yours jer ~ your/yours to jer ~ (to) your/yours av jer ~ of your/yours
plu/3rd/com di ~ they dim ~ them to dim ~ (to) them di selv ~ ? dim selv, sek ~ themselves to dim selv, to sek ~ (to) themselves dir ~ their/theirs dir ~ their/theirs to dir ~ (to) their/theirs av dir ~ of their/theirs
plu/imp/com maner ~ you, they maner ~ you, them to maner ~ (to) you, (to) them maner selv ~ ? maner selv, sek ~ themselves, yourselves to maner selv, to sek ~ (to) themselves, (to)to yourselves maners ~ their/theirs, your/yours maners ~ their, your to maners ~ (to) their/theirs, (to) your/yours av maners ~ of their/theirs, of your/yours

Since the word man simply means human being, it can be understood as an implicit way to express an abstract actor; similar words like lüd (people) or di can be used as well.

The honorific salutation is expressed by the plural form je; however it should be avoided in usual speech in favor of the singular form du.

A reflexive genitive can be formed by inserting the word egen (own), for example Han (A) hav givt to ham (B) hans egen buk. ~ He (A) has given (to) him (B) his own book. (A's book was given to B).

When finding appropriate personal pronouns, the most intricate cases were the 3rd person singular and the 2nd person plural; both turned out to be very diverse among the modern Germanic languages. While for the 2nd person plural we could find a sufficient satisfying solution after a while, the 3rd person singular kept defying. In the end we came to the settlement to use a Swedish-like solution including the pronoun hen, which is not bound to any sexus so that it can be used for actors in general.


This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

Interrogative Relative Demonstrative far Demonstrative near Universal Undefined Negative
Concrete vilk ~ which vilk ~ which jen ~ that dis ~ this al ~ every, all ed ~ some ni, nit ed ~ no
Thing vilk ding, vat ~ what vilk ding, vat ~ what jen ding, dat ~ that dis ding ~ this al ding, alvat ~ everything ed ding, edvat ~ something, anything ni ding, nivat ~ nothing
Person vilk man, ve ~ who vilk man, ve ~ who jen man ~ that person, that one dis man ~ this person, this one al man, alve ~ everyone, everybody ed man, edve ~ someone, somebody ni man, nive ~ no one, nobody
Posession av vilk man, ves ~ whose av vilk man, ves ~ whose av jen man ~ that one's av dis man ~ this one's av al man, alves ~ everyone's av ed man, edves ~ someone's av ni man, nives ~ no one's
Time vilk tid, van ~ when vilk tid, van ~ when jen tid, dan ~ then dis tid, no ~ now al tid, alvan ~ always ed tid, edvan ~ sometimes, anytime, ever ni tid, nivan ~ never
Location vilk sted, var ~ where vilk sted, var ~ where jen sted, dar ~ there dis sted, har ~ here al sted, alvar ~ everywhere ed sted, edvar ~ somewhere ni sted, nivar ~ nowhere
Direction to vilk sted, varto ~ whereto, whither to vilk sted, varto ~ whereto, whither to jen sted, darto ~ (to) there, thither to dis sted, harto ~ (to) here, hither to al sted, alto ~ ? to ed sted, edto ~ (to) anywhere to ni sted, nito ~ (to) nowhere, nowhither
Cause fur vilk grund, varfur ~ why fur vilk grund, varfur ~ why fur jen grund, darfur ~ ? fur dis grund, harfur ~ ? fur al grund, alfur ~ ? fur ed grund, edfur ~ ? fur ni grund, nifur ~ ?
Manner vilk mot, hur ~ how vilk mot, hur ~ how jen mot, so ~ so dis mot, so ~ so al mot ~ ? ed mot ~ ? ni mot ~ ?
Type vilk slag ~ what kind of vilk slag ~ ? jen slag, solk ~ such dis slag ~ ? al slag ~ ? ed slag ~ ? ni slag ~ ?
Amount vilk mang ~ how many, how much vilk mang ~ how many, how much jen mang ~ ? dis mang ~ ? al mang ~ ? ed mang ~ ? ni mang ~ ?

Some of these words are very unlikely to ever get used (e.g. ni slag). Nevertheless they exist and are listed for completeness.


This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

Positive/Absolute Positive/Relative Positive/Attributive Directive/Absolute Directive/Relative
fore foran ~ in front foran (av) ~ in front of forer ~ fore, front for ~ forward for (av) ~ in front of
back bakan ~ back bakan (av) ~ behind baker ~ rear, hind bak ~ backward, behind bak (av) ~ behind
up uveran ~ on top uveran (av) ~ over, above uverer ~ upper uver ~ up uver (av) ~ over, above
down nederan ~ below nederan (av) ~ under nederer ~ lower neder ~ down neder (av) ~ under
left vinstan ~ left vinstan (av) ~ left from vinster ~ left vinst ~ to the left vinst (av) ~ to the left of
right hegan ~ right hegan (av) ~ right from heger ~ right heg ~ to the right heg (av) ~ to the right of
in inan ~ inside inan (av) ~ in, inside from iner ~ inner in ~ in in (av) ~ into
out utan ~ outside utan (av) ~ out, outside from uter ~ outer ut ~ out ut (av) ~ out of
on upan ~ upon upan (av) ~ thereon uper ~ ? up ~ on up (av) ~ onto
between melan ~ inbetween melan (av) ~ between meler ~ middle mel ~ between mel (av) ~ between
Word Functions

This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

Affix Type Description Example
far- {verb} → {verb} Alters the meaning of the verb to a somehow negative version (difficult to explain :)) fargive ~ forgive
-ar {verb} → {noun} A person, that does what is described in the referred verb sprekar ~ speaker
-ing {verb} → {noun} Something that arises from the referred verb giving ~ gift
-rid {verb} → {noun} Durative: The act described by the referred verb hatrid ~ hatred, hating
-(e)t {verb} → {attribute} Passive participle: The attribute to have done a certain action hört ~ heard
-end {verb} → {attribute} Active participle: The attribute to be doing a certain action singend ~ singing
-ber {verb} → {attribute} The possibility to do, what the referred verb describes denkber ~ thinkable
-isk {noun} → {attribute} Belonging to the referred object svedisk ~ swedish
-ig {noun} → {attribute} With the referred object bludig ~ bloody
-lik {noun} → {attribute} Having the abilities of the referred object bruderlik ~ brotherly
-en {attribute} → {verb} To make something have the referred ability harden ~ harden, make hard
-hed {attribute} → {noun} The abstract attribute described by the referred property frihed ~ freedom
un- {attribute} → {attribute} Negation of the referred attribute unfri ~ unfree

Some complex examples:

  • unmanlikhed ~ inhumanity
  • seberenung ~ visualization
  • kraftigenar ~ fortifier

See Munin-Dictionary

In Folksprak verbs are not conjugated for different personae (participants), numeri (number of actors) or genera (grammatical genders).

Infinite Verbforms

The infinitive is formed by appending -e to the verb stem, e.g. skrive ~ to write. In some cases it is mandatory to mark the infinitive with the special particle tu in order to form the extended intfinitive, e.g.: Han hup tu finde en svart sten. ~ He hopes to find a black stone..

Specify cases for extended infinitive

The active participle is formed by appending -end to the verb stem, e.g. skrivend ~ writing.

The passive participle is formed by appending -et to the verb stem, e.g. skrivet ~ written. If pronouncable, the e in the ending can be omitted, e.g. skrivt.

Tempora and Modi

This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

The following table lists the timeforms found in Folksprak and how they are built in the indicative mode.

Name Description Scheme Example
Nutid For expressing an action in the present [mainverb:stem] Ek skriv. ~ I write.
Fortid For expressing an action in the past [hav:flected] + [mainverb:passive participle] Ek hav skrivt. ~ I have written., I wrote.
Eftertid (implicit) For expressing an action in the future [skalvilkom:flected] + [mainverb:infinitive] Ek skal skrive. ~ I will write., I am going to write.

Since these forms are built with auxiliary verbs, they can be combined straightforward to form complex expressions, e.g. Ek skal have skrivt. ~ I will have written..

The imperative only exists in the present (with future meaning) for the 2nd person singular and plural. It is formed by using the bare stem of the verb, optionally followed by the personal pronoun (i.e. either du or je) in order to specify or emphasize the numerus. Examples: skriv!, skriv, je!.

There are two ways to the subjunctive. One is to use the special modal verb vöre which can be understood as a wrapper for regular verbs. The other possibility is to use the adverbial particle maglik.


This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

In order to negate the meaning of a verb, one places the word nit after the verb. Example: Di se nit. ~ They don't see.

If the verb takes a direct object it is allowed to place the object before the nit. Example: Di se us nit. ~ They don't see us.

Negations can also be expressed implicitly by using negative correlatives. Example: Di se ing tid. ~ They never see.

Doubled negations (both explicit and implicit ones) cancel each other out. Example: Di se nit ing tid. ~ They never don't see., They always see.


This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

The plural of a noun is formed by appending the syllable -er, e.g. huser ~ houses.


This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

The base form of noun is the nominative

Regular nouns can appear in two cases: nominative and genitive. The nominative doesn't receive any marker while the genitive is formed by appending the suffix -(e)s to the word, e.g. huses ~ houses. The marker for the plural has to be applied first, e.g. huser(e)s ~ houses'.


This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.

The undefinite aspect of a singular noun is formed by using the article eng, e.g. en hus ~ a house. Undefinite plural nouns don't have an article, e.g. huser ~ houses.

The definite aspect of both singular and plural nouns is formed by using the article deu, e.g. de hus ~ the house.

The following table summarizes the information of this section:

Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive
Singular/Undefined en sten ~ a stone en sten ~ a stone to en sten ~ to a stone en stens, av en sten ~ a stones', of a stone
Singular/Defined de sten ~ the stone de sten ~ the stone to de sten ~ to the stone de stens, av de sten ~ the stones', of the stone
Plural/Undefined stener ~ stones stener ~ stones to stener ~ to stones steners, av stener ~ stones', of stones
Plural/Defined de stener ~ the stones de stener ~ the stones to de stener ~ to the stones de steners, av de stener ~ the stones', of the stones

Vi kan see de huses vindöger ~ We can see the houses windows.

Sentence Structure

This section is only a proposal yet; not part of the draft.


Declarative Sentences

Scheme: "subject predicate object other parts."

Example: "De vulf hav givt en sten to de fogel po fordag."

Translation: The wolf has given a stone to the bird yesterday.

Interrogative Sentences

Scheme: "predicate:flected verb subject predicate:rest object other parts."

Example: "Hav de vulf givt en sten to de fogel po fordag?"

Translation: Has the wolf given a stone to the bird yesterday?

Imperative Sentences

Scheme: "predicate subject object other parts!"

Example: "Giv en sten to de fogel!

Translation: Give a stone to the bird!

De grot diktator

Ek bid fur fargiving, dok ek vil nit are de verlds herskar — ek ar nit solk en man. Ek vil nit beherske er neddrüke et man, insted ek vil helpe de maner alvan and alvar: De judisk, de hejdisk, de fargig, de vit, …. Vi al skal helpe en de ander fur at vi kan leve inan en beter verld. Vi vil nit hate er farakte us. Dis verld hav rum fur al maner and ur erd ar so rik, at vi al kan ete nok. De levrid kan are so fri and skön; dok vi hav farlatet de veg.

Gridhed hav sükent de maners seler and hav fült de verld med hatrid; hit hav ledet us to elend and bludskedrid. Vi hav utvikelt raskhed, dok ur gester sta stil. Vi lat makiner verke fur us; ur vetrid hav makt us hokmudig and ur klughed hard and unfrendlik; vi denk altu mang and föl altu lit. Dok mer den makiner vi treng manlikhed; mer den klughed vi treng frendlikhed and gudhed. An dis egenheder, ur levrid ar frükridig and al ding ar lost.

Med de helprid av flügtüger and de radio vi ar narer en to de ander den et tid bak. Fur at de manskap kan bruke dis utfindinger fur en gud sak, hit mut leve med enhed and bruderlikhed. Selv nu mang tused in der verld kan höre min stem, mang tusend fartvivelt verer, kviner and smal kinder — ofaringer av en sistem, vilk fang and kvel unskuldig maner. Ek rup to al, vilk kan höre mek nu: Fartvivel nit! De elend skal farsvinde, van de gridhed farsvind and de biterhed av maner, vilk frük de manskaps forskridrid. De Maners hatrid skal farsvinde and diktarorer skal döe. Dan de kraft, vilk di hav takt fra de folk, skal kome bak to de folk. Selv ef mang blud ar skedet: Tu fekte fur de frihed ar en gud sak.

Fektarer: Fekt nit fur tiraner; maner, vilk farakt ju and mak ju to sklaver; vilk vertskat nit jer levrid, vilk seg to ju, vat je skal make, true and föle! Di skend ju, föd ju, behandel ju lik kanon-föding. Fekt nit fur dis fardervt maner — makin-maner med makin-hövder and makin-herter! Je ar nit makiner, je ar nit direr, je ar maner. Lat de manlikhed blive inan jer herter! Je skal nit hate; bar de unlivt hat, de unlivt and de fardervt.

Fektarer: Fekt nit fur de sklavskap! Fekt fur de frihed! Inan de 17. avsniding av de hajlig Lukas ar skrivt: ‚God ar inan al maner.‘ — nit bar inan en grup ut maner, insted inan al maner, inan ju. Je, de folk, hav de kraft; de kraft fur tu bue vapener, dok ok de kraft fur tu sprede gladhed. Je, de folk, hav de kraft fur tu make dis levrid fri and skön, fur tu make dis levrid en vunderfült sak. Darfur: Inan de nam av folkherskrid: Lat us bruke dis kraft! Lat us verde en! Lat us fekte fur en nü verld, fur en beter verld, vilk giv to de maner de magrid tu verke, vilk giv en eftertid to de jung and sikerhed to de eld. Ok de tiraner hav truent dis to us fur tu foe de vold, dok di hav lügt. Di mak nit san dir luving, di vil ni tid. Tiraner frien bar dim selv, dok de folk skal blive sklaver.

Lat us nu fekte fur tu upfüle dis luving. Lat us fekte fur tu make de verld fri, fur tu uvervinde landmarker, gridhed, hatrid and de untillatrid. Lat us fekte fur en verld med farstarid, en verld, var vetridskap and forskridrid skal lede to al mans gladhed.

Fektarer: Inan de nam av folkherskrid: Lat us al verde en!

An attempt to translate the final speech from the famous Charlie Chaplin movie "The great dictator" (with some passages inspired by the German translation); the English original can be listened to on youtube; or in case you'd like to hear a more heart-wrenching version: accompanied by "Hans Zimmer - Time".