User Tools

Site Tools


guidelines_for_word_formation

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
guidelines_for_word_formation [2017/12/17 13:55]
fenris [German to Folksprak]
guidelines_for_word_formation [2020/05/31 13:31] (current)
fenris
Line 1: Line 1:
-==== Proto-Germanic to Folksprak ==== +# General guidelines
-^ [pg]-gramm ^ [fs]-gramm ^ remarks/​examples ^ +
-| //*b// | **b** [b] at the beginning of a syllable | //*baunō// > **boen** [bøːn], //​*brōþēr//​ > **broder** [ˈbroːdər] | +
-| //*ƀ// | **v** [v] at the end of a syllable | //​*weƀaną//​ > **wéve** [ʋeːvə], Can be **bb** [b] if the consonant was geminated or //*ƀj//, //*reƀja// > **ribb** [rɪb] | +
-| //*w// | **w** [ʋ] at the beginning of a syllable | //*wīdaz// > **wid** [ʋiːd] | +
-| //*w// | **w** [w] or [ʊ] at the end of a syllable | Inter-vocally is [w], at the end of a word makes a [ʊ] diphthong with the stem vowel, //grǣwaz// > **graw** [graʊ], //​*snaiwaz//​ > **snéw** [sneːʊ] | +
-| //*sk// | **sh** [ʃ] in almost all cases | //*skamō// > **sham** [ʃaːm], //*fiskaz// > **fish** [fɪʃ] | +
-| //*h// | **h** [h] at the beginning of a syllable | //*handuz// > **hand** [hand] | +
-| //*h// | **h** [x] at the end of syllable | This is the commonest evolution, //*nahts// > **naht** [naxt], //*hauhaz// > **hoeh** [høːx] | +
-| //*h// | **j** [j] or [ɪ] at the end of syllable, sometimes evolves to **j** | Inter-vocally is [j], at the end of a word becomes [ɪ] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel, //​*þleuhan//​ > **flyje** [ˈflyːjə],​ //​*slahaną//​ > **slaje** [ˈslaːjə],​ //*tehun// > **tejn** [teɪn] | +
-| //*hw// | **w** [ʋ] at the beginning of a syllable | //*hwar// > **war** [ʋaːr] | +
-| //*hw// | **j** [j] or [ɪ] at the end of a syllable | Inter-vocally is [j], at the end of a word becomes [ɪ] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel, //​*sehwaną//​ > **seje** [ˈseːjə],​ //​*taihwō//​ > **tej** [teɪ] | +
-| //*hr// | **r** [r] at the beginning of a syllable | //​*hringaz//​ > **ring** [rɪŋ], At the end of a syllable is **-jr** [-ɪr] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel: //*tahrą// > **tajr** [taɪr] | +
-| //*hl// | **l** [l] | //​*hlahjaną//​ > **lahe** [ˈlaːxə],​ At the end of a syllable is **-jl** [-ɪl] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel: //​*hanhilō//​ > **hejl** [heɪl] | +
-| //*g// | **g** [g] at the beginning of a syllable | This is also the most common evolution in other positions of the syllable – but see below, //​*geƀaną//​ > **géve** [ˈgeːve], //*dagaz// > **dag** [daːg] | +
-| //*g+*j// | **gg** [g] | //​*brugjō//​ > **brygg** [brʏg] | +
-| //*g// | **j** [j] or [ɪ] at the end of a syllable | This only happens when the majority of the source languages have lost the *g, but it’s still retained by a minority or retained in some cognate words, Inter-vocally is [j], at the end of a word makes a +[ɪ] diphthong with the stem vowel, //*seglam// > **sejl** [seɪl], //​*magaþiz//​ > **majd** [maid] | +
-| //*þ// | **t** [t] at the beginning of a syllable | //​*þrǣduz//​ > **trad** [traːd], //​*þankōną//​ > **tanke** [ˈtaŋkə] | +
-| //*þ// | **d** [d] at the end of a syllable | //*baþą// > **bad** [baːd], //*erþō// > **érd** [ɛrd] | +
-| //*þ// | **d** [d] sometimes at the beginning of syllable | This is mostly in pronouns, articles, and some particles/​adverbs,​ This is when //*þ// evolves to **d** [d] in Scandinavian languages and to voiced **th** [ð] in English, Whether the cognate is voiced in English and/or Scandinavian is the deciding factor here, //*þauh// > **doh** [doːh], //*þū// > **du** [duː] | +
-| //*f// | **f** [f] at the start of syllables | //*fadēr// > **fader** [ˈfaːdər] | +
-| //*f// | **v** [v] at the end of syllables | //*hōfaz// > **hov** [hoːv], If it is geminated or //*f+*j//, then becomes **ff** [f] | +
-| //*ī// | **i** [iː] | //​*rīdaną//​ > **ride** [ˈriːdə],​ //​*hwītaz//​ **wit** [ʋiːt] | +
-| //*ō// | **o** [oː] | //​*blōdam//​ > **blod** [bloːd], //​*mōþar//​ > **moder** [ˈmoːdər] | +
-| //*ū// | **u** [uː] | //*hūsą// > **hus** [huːs], //*rūhaz// > **ruj** [ruːɪ] | +
-| //*ǣ// | **a** [aː] | //*dǣdiz// > **dad** [daːd], //*ǣlaz// > **al** [aːl] | +
-| //*ai// | **é** [eː] | **É** in stressed syllables is optionally written with a acute accent, This is to disambiguate it from **e** used as a schwa [ə], It should written with an acute accent in dictionaries and language learning materials, In normal writing, intended for fluent readers, it can be left off, //*haimaz// > **hém** [heːm], //​*dailijan//​ > **déle** [deːlə] | +
-| //*au// | **oe** [øː] | //*baunō// > **boen** [bøːn], //​*hauƀudą//​ > **hoeved** [ˈhøːvəd] | +
-| //*eu// | **y** [yː] | //*deupaz// > **dyp** [dyːp], //​*freusaną//​ > **fryse** [ˈfryːsə] | +
-| //*a// | **a**, [a] or [aː] short or long depending on following geminated consonants | //​*strandaz//​ > **strand** [strand], //*hwalaz// > **wal** [ʋaːl] | +
-| //*e// | **é**, [ɛ] or **é** [eː] short or long depending on following geminated consonants | //*wegaz// > **wég** [ʋeːg], //​*sternan//,​ //​*sterran//​ > **stérr** [stɛr] | +
-| //*e// | **i** [ɪ] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation and if the following consonants are geminated | //​*lepjōn//​ >> **lipp** [lɪp], //*senn//, //*senþ-// > **sinn** [sɪn] | +
-| //*u// | **u**, [ʊ] or **o** [ɔ] or **o** [oː] short or long depending on following geminated consonants | Short versions change to **o** if the majority of source languages do, //*under// > **under** [ˈʊndər],​ //*hurnaz// > **horn** [hɔrn], //*uƀer// > **over** [ˈoːvər] | +
-| //*a// | **é** [ɛ] or **é** [eː] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation | //​*wadjōną//​ > **wédde** [ˈʋɛdə],​ //*bazjan// > **bére** [ˈbeːrə] | +
-| //*u// | **y** [ʏ] or **y** [yː] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation, long or short depending if the following consonants are geminated | //​*hrugjaz//​ > **rygg** [rʏg], //​*uƀilaz//​ > **yvel** [ˈyːvəl] | +
-| //*ō// | **oe** [øː] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation | WG //​*grōnja-//​ > **groen** [grøːn], WG //​*fōljan//​ > **foele** [ˈføːlə] | +
-| //*ū// | **y** [yː] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation | //​*kūhska//,​ //​*kūhski//​ > **kysh** [kʏʃ], WG //*fūir// > **fyr** [fyːr] | +
-| //*ǣ// | **ae** [ɛː] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation | Latin //caseus// WG //​*kǣsjus//​ > **kaes** [kɛːs], //​*fǣgjan//​ > **faege** [ˈfɛːgə] | +
-| //*a//, //*e//, //*i//, //*o//, //*u// etc. in unstressed syllables generalize to **e** [ə] or are lost altogether | Whether to drop an unstressed vowel or retain it is generally determined by what has occurred in the majority of the source languages | //​*ga-nōga//​ > **genog** [gəˈnoːg],​ //*augōn// > **oege** [ˈøːgə] //​*haƀukaz//​ > **havek** [ˈhaːvək],​ //*hōraz// > **hor** [hoːr] |+
  
-==== Latin, Græco-Latin,​ Romance and French to Folksprak ​====+Words should be: 
 + 
 +- as internationally recognisable (within the Germanic world) and/or frequent as possible 
 +- not confusable with other words 
 +- ideally, not false friends 
 +- structurally simple 
 + 
 + 
 +# Concrete guidelines 
 + 
 +## Proto-Germanic to Folksprak 
 + 
 +^ \[pg\]-gramm ^ \[fs\]-gramm ^ remarks/​examples ^ 
 +| _\*b_ | **b** \[b\] at the beginning of a syllable | _\*baunō_ > **boen** \[bøːn\], _\*brōþēr_ > **broder** \[ˈbroːdər\] | 
 +| _\*ƀ_ | **v** \[v\] at the end of a syllable | _\*weƀaną_ > **wéve** \[ʋeːvə\],​ Can be **bb** \[b\] if the consonant was geminated or _\*ƀj_, _\*reƀja_ > **ribb** \[rɪb\] | 
 +| _\*w_ | **w** \[ʋ\] at the beginning of a syllable | _\*wīdaz_ > **wid** \[ʋiːd\] | 
 +| _\*w_ | **w** \[w\] or \[ʊ\] at the end of a syllable | Inter-vocally is \[w\], at the end of a word makes a \[ʊ\] diphthong with the stem vowel, _grǣwaz_ > **graw** \[graʊ\], _\*snaiwaz_ > **snéw** \[sneːʊ\] | 
 +| _\*sk_ | **sh** \[ʃ\] in almost all cases | _\*skamō_ > **sham** \[ʃaːm\], _\*fiskaz_ > **fish** \[fɪʃ\] | 
 +| _\*h_ | **h** \[h\] at the beginning of a syllable | _\*handuz_ > **hand** \[hand\] | 
 +| _\*h_ | **h** \[x\] at the end of syllable | This is the commonest evolution, _\*nahts_ > **naht** \[naxt\], _\*hauhaz_ > **hoeh** \[høːx\] | 
 +| _\*h_ | **j** \[j\] or \[ɪ\] at the end of syllable, sometimes evolves to **j** | Inter-vocally is \[j\], at the end of a word becomes \[ɪ\] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel, _\*þleuhan_ > **flyje** \[ˈflyːjə\],​ _\*slahaną_ > **slaje** \[ˈslaːjə\],​ _\*tehun_ > **tejn** \[teɪn\] | 
 +| _\*hw_ | **w** \[ʋ\] at the beginning of a syllable | _\*hwar_ > **war** \[ʋaːr\] | 
 +| _\*hw_ | **j** \[j\] or \[ɪ\] at the end of a syllable | Inter-vocally is \[j\], at the end of a word becomes \[ɪ\] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel, _\*sehwaną_ > **seje** \[ˈseːjə\],​ _\*taihwō_ > **tej** \[teɪ\] | 
 +| _\*hr_ | **r** \[r\] at the beginning of a syllable | _\*hringaz_ > **ring** \[rɪŋ\], At the end of a syllable is **-jr** \[-ɪr\] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel: _\*tahrą_ > **tajr** \[taɪr\] | 
 +| _\*hl_ | **l** \[l\] | _\*hlahjaną_ > **lahe** \[ˈlaːxə\],​ At the end of a syllable is **-jl** \[-ɪl\] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel: _\*hanhilō_ > **hejl** \[heɪl\] | 
 +| _\*g_ | **g** \[g\] at the beginning of a syllable | This is also the most common evolution in other positions of the syllable – but see below, _\*geƀaną_ > **géve** \[ˈgeːve\],​ _\*dagaz_ > **dag** \[daːg\] | 
 +| _\*g_+_\*j_ | **gg** \[g\] | _\*brugjō_ > **brygg** \[brʏg\] | 
 +| _\*g_ | **j** \[j\] or \[ɪ\] at the end of a syllable | This only happens when the majority of the source languages have lost the _\*g_, but it’s still retained by a minority or retained in some cognate words, Inter-vocally is \[j\], at the end of a word makes a +\[ɪ\] diphthong with the stem vowel, _\*seglam_ > **sejl** \[seɪl\], _\*magaþiz_ > **majd** \[maid\] | 
 +| _\*þ_ | **t** \[t\] at the beginning of a syllable | _\*þrǣduz_ > **trad** \[traːd\], _\*þankōną_ > **tanke** \[ˈtaŋkə\] | 
 +| _\*þ_ | **d** \[d\] at the end of a syllable | _\*baþą_ > **bad** \[baːd\], _\*erþō_ > **érd** \[ɛrd\] | 
 +| _\*þ_ | **d** \[d\] sometimes at the beginning of syllable | This is mostly in pronouns, articles, and some particles/​adverbs,​ This is when _\*þ_ evolves to **d** \[d\] in Scandinavian languages and to voiced **th** \[ð\] in English, Whether the cognate is voiced in English and/or Scandinavian is the deciding factor here, _\*þauh_ > **doh** \[doːh\], _\*þū_ > **du** \[duː\] | 
 +| _\*f_ | **f** \[f\] at the start of syllables | _\*fadēr_ > **fader** \[ˈfaːdər\] | 
 +| _\*f_ | **v** \[v\] at the end of syllables | _\*hōfaz_ > **hov** \[hoːv\], If it is geminated or _\*f_+_\*j_,​ then becomes **ff** \[f\] | 
 +| _\*ī_ | **i** \[iː\] | _\*rīdaną_ > **ride** \[ˈriːdə\],​ _\*hwītaz_ **wit** \[ʋiːt\] | 
 +| _\*ō_ | **o** \[oː\] | _\*blōdam_ > **blod** \[bloːd\], _\*mōþar_ > **moder** \[ˈmoːdər\] | 
 +| _\*ū_ | **u** \[uː\] | _\*hūsą_ > **hus** \[huːs\], _\*rūhaz_ > **ruj** \[ruːɪ\] | 
 +| _\*ǣ_ | **a** \[aː\] | _\*dǣdiz_ > **dad** \[daːd\], _\*ǣlaz_ > **al** \[aːl\] | 
 +| _\*ai_ | **é** \[eː\] | **É** in stressed syllables is optionally written with a acute accent, This is to disambiguate it from **e** used as a schwa \[ə\], It should written with an acute accent in dictionaries and language learning materials, In normal writing, intended for fluent readers, it can be left off, _\*haimaz_ > **hém** \[heːm\], _\*dailijan_ > **déle** \[deːlə\] | 
 +| _\*au_ | **oe** \[øː\] | _\*baunō_ > **boen** \[bøːn\], _\*hauƀudą_ > **hoeved** \[ˈhøːvəd\] | 
 +| _\*eu_ | **y** \[yː\] | _\*deupaz_ > **dyp** \[dyːp\], _\*freusaną_ > **fryse** \[ˈfryːsə\] | 
 +| _\*a_ | **a**, \[a\] or \[aː\] short or long depending on following geminated consonants | _\*strandaz_ > **strand** \[strand\], _\*hwalaz_ > **wal** \[ʋaːl\] | 
 +| _\*e_ | **é**, \[ɛ\] or **é** \[eː\] short or long depending on following geminated consonants | _\*wegaz_ > **wég** \[ʋeːg\], _\*sternan_,​ _\*sterran_ > **stérr** \[stɛr\] | 
 +| _\*e_ | **i** \[ɪ\] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation and if the following consonants are geminated | _\*lepjōn_ >> **lipp** \[lɪp\], _\*senn_, _\*senþ-_ > **sinn** \[sɪn\] | 
 +| _\*u_ | **u**, \[ʊ\] or **o** \[ɔ\] or **o** \[oː\] short or long depending on following geminated consonants | Short versions change to **o** if the majority of source languages do, _\*under_ > **under** \[ˈʊndər\],​ _\*hurnaz_ > **horn** \[hɔrn\], _\*uƀer_ > **over** \[ˈoːvər\] | 
 +| _\*a_ | **é** \[ɛ\] or **é** \[eː\] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation | _\*wadjōną_ > **wédde** \[ˈʋɛdə\],​ _\*bazjan_ > **bére** \[ˈbeːrə\] | 
 +| _\*u_ | **y** \[ʏ\] or **y** \[yː\] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation, long or short depending if the following consonants are geminated | _\*hrugjaz_ > **rygg** \[rʏg\], _\*uƀilaz_ > **yvel** \[ˈyːvəl\] | 
 +| _\*ō_ | **oe** \[øː\] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation | WG _\*grōnja-_ > **groen** \[grøːn\],​ WG _\*fōljan_ > **foele** \[ˈføːlə\] | 
 +| _\*ū_ | **y** \[yː\] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation | _\*kūhska_,​ _\*kūhski_ > **kysh** \[kʏʃ\], WG _\*fūir_ > **fyr** \[fyːr\] | 
 +| _\*ǣ_ | **ae** \[ɛː\] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation | Latin _caseus_ WG _\*kǣsjus_ > **kaes** \[kɛːs\], _\*fǣgjan_ > **faege** \[ˈfɛːgə\] | 
 +| _\*a_, _\*e_, _\*i_, _\*o_, _\*u_ etc. in unstressed syllables generalize to **e** \[ə\] or are lost altogether | Whether to drop an unstressed vowel or retain it is generally determined by what has occurred in the majority of the source languages | _\*ga-nōga_ > **genog** \[gəˈnoːg\],​ _\*augōn_ > **oege** \[ˈøːgə\] _\*haƀukaz_ > **havek** \[ˈhaːvək\],​ _\*hōraz_ > **hor** \[hoːr\] | 
 + 
 + 
 +## Latin, Græco-Latin,​ Romance and French to Folksprak
  
 Guidelines for bringing Romance internationalisms into Folksprak. Guidelines for bringing Romance internationalisms into Folksprak.
Line 49: Line 63:
 The form of most of the vowels are retained and are pronounced as they are spelled – the vowel length is long or short depending on whether the following consonant is singular or a cluster, but with the following changes applied. The form of most of the vowels are retained and are pronounced as they are spelled – the vowel length is long or short depending on whether the following consonant is singular or a cluster, but with the following changes applied.
  
-^ [xx]-gramm ^ [fs]-gramm ^ remarks/​examples ^ +\[xx\]-gramm ^ \[fs\]-gramm ^ remarks/​examples ^ 
-//*c// not before e, i, y | **k** [k] | //​cablo// ​> **kabel** [ˈkaːbəl], ​//​directe// ​> **dirékt** [dɪˈrɛkt] | +_\*c_ not before e, i, y | **k** \[k\] | _cablo_ ​> **kabel** ​\[ˈkaːbəl\], _directe_ ​> **dirékt** ​\[dɪˈrɛkt\] | 
-//*c// before æ, e, i, y | **c** [ʦ] | //​cemento// ​> **cemént** [ʦɛˈmɛnt], ​//​decembre// ​> **decémber** [dɛˈʦɛmbər]. A word final //*c// is not possible, so the normal solution is that if any of the source languages pronouce an extra vowel after the //*c// in their cognates, then a final **e** [ə] should be added: **ekscellénce** [ɛksʦɛˈlɛnʦə] not ***ekscellénc** If none of the source languages have an extra vowel, then //*c// should be changed to **s** [s]: **dans** [dans] not ***danc**. | +_\*c_ before æ, e, i, y | **c** \\] | _cemento_ ​> **cemént** ​\[ʦɛˈmɛnt\], _decembre_ ​> **decémber** ​\[dɛˈʦɛmbər\]. A word final _\*c_ is not possible, so the normal solution is that if any of the source languages pronouce an extra vowel after the _\*c_ in their cognates, then a final **e** \\] should be added: **ekscellénce** ​\[ɛksʦɛˈlɛnʦə\] not **ekscellénc** If none of the source languages have an extra vowel, then _\*c_ should be changed to **s** \[s\]: **dans** ​\[dans\] not **danc**. | 
-//*-ti-// before another vowel | **-ci-** [-ʦj-] | //​station// ​> **stacion** [staˈʦjoːn], ​//​absentia// ​> **abséncie** [abˈsɛnʦjə], ​//​patiente// ​> **paciént** [paˈʦjɛnt] | +_\*-ti-before another vowel | **-ci-** ​\[-ʦj-\] | _station_ ​> **stacion** ​\[staˈʦjoːn\], _absentia_ ​> **abséncie** ​\[abˈsɛnʦjə\], _patiente_ ​> **paciént** ​\[paˈʦjɛnt\] | 
-//*ch// (Græco-Latin chi) | **k** [k] | //​character// ​> **karakter** [kaˈraktər], ​//​technica// ​> **teknik** [tɛkˈniːk] | +_\*ch_ (Græco-Latin chi) | **k** \[k\] | _character_ ​> **karakter** ​\[kaˈraktər\], _technica_ ​> **teknik** ​\[tɛkˈniːk\] | 
-//*ch// (French/​Spanish ch) | **sh** [ʃ] | French ​//​revanche// ​> **revansh** [rɛˈvanʃ], ​//​chance// ​> **shance** [ˈʃanʦə], ​//​broche// ​> **brosh** [brɔʃ] | +_\*ch_ (French/​Spanish ch) | **sh** ​\\] | French ​_revanche_ ​> **revansh** ​\[rɛˈvanʃ\], _chance_ ​> **shance** ​\[ˈʃanʦə\], _broche_ ​> **brosh** ​\[brɔʃ\] | 
-//*g// (French soft g before e, i, y) | **gj** [ʒ] | This only happens when the majority of the source languages have changed the pronunciation from the default for **g**. So normally the English cognate will have [ʤ] and the German cognate with have [ʒ].  ​//​gesto// ​> **gjéste** [ˈʒɛstə], ​//​bagage// ​> **bagagje** [baˈgaʒə] | +_\*g_ (French soft g before e, i, y) | **gj** ​\\] | This only happens when the majority of the source languages have changed the pronunciation from the default for **g**. So normally the English cognate will have \\] and the German cognate with have \\].  ​_gesto_ ​> **gjéste** ​\[ˈʒɛstə\], _bagage_ ​> **bagagje** ​\[baˈgaʒə\] | 
-//*ph// (Græco-Latin phi) | **f** [f] | //​photographo// ​> **fotograf** [fɔtɔˈgraːf] | +_\*ph_ (Græco-Latin phi) | **f** \[f\] | _photographo_ ​> **fotograf** ​\[fɔtɔˈgraːf\] | 
-//*th// (Græco-Latin theta) | **t** [t] | //​theatro// ​> **teater** [tɛˈaːtər]. ​//​apotheca// ​> **apoték** [apɔˈteːk] | +_\*th_ (Græco-Latin theta) | **t** \[t\] | _theatro_ ​> **teater** ​\[tɛˈaːtər\]. _apotheca_ ​> **apoték** ​\[apɔˈteːk\] | 
-//*x// | **ks** [ks] | //​luxo// ​> **lukse** [ˈlʊksə], ​//​extreme// ​> **ekstrém** [ɛksˈtreːm] | +_\*x_ | **ks** ​\[ks\] | _luxo_ ​> **lukse** ​\[ˈlʊksə\], _extreme_ ​> **ekstrém** ​\[ɛksˈtreːm\] | 
-//*qu// | **kw** [kʋ] | //​quadrato// ​> **kwadrat** [kʋaˈdraːt], ​//​adequate// ​> **adekwat** [adɛˈkʋaːt] | +_\*qu_ | **kw** ​\[kʋ\] | _quadrato_ ​> **kwadrat** ​\[kʋaˈdraːt\], _adequate_ ​> **adekwat** ​\[adɛˈkʋaːt\] | 
-//*que// (French que) | **k** [k] | When French ​*que is used to designate a [k] sound before a *e or *i, then is changed to **k** [k]. French ​//​banquet// ​> **bankétt** [baŋˈkɛt],​ French ​//​liqueur// ​> **likoer** [lɪˈkøːr] | +_\*que_ (French que) | **k** \[k\] | When French ​_que_ is used to designate a \[k\] sound before a _e_ or _i_, then is changed to **k** \[k\]. French ​_banquet_ ​> **bankétt** ​\[baŋˈkɛt\], French ​_liqueur_ ​> **likoer** ​\[lɪˈkøːr\] | 
-//*u// (French u) | **y** [ʏː] or [yː], long or short depending on following consonants (single or clusters) | This only happens when the majority of the source languages have adopted the French pronunciation and assimilated it to their native orthography. In more cases //*u// > **u** [ʊ] or [uː]. Fr //​brusque// ​> **brysk** [brʏsk], Fr //​brochure// ​> **broshyre** [brɔˈʃyːrə] | +_\*u_ (French u) | **y** \[ʏː\] or \[yː\], long or short depending on following consonants (single or clusters) | This only happens when the majority of the source languages have adopted the French pronunciation and assimilated it to their native orthography. In more cases _\*u_ > **u** \\] or \[uː\]. Fr _brusque_ ​> **brysk** ​\[brʏsk\], Fr _brochure_ ​> **broshyre** ​\[brɔˈʃyːrə\] | 
-//*é// (French é) | **éé** [eː] only in a word final position | Fr //​cliché// ​> **klishéé** [klɪˈʃeː]. Fr //​allée// ​> **alléé** [aˈleː] | +_\*é_ (French é) | **éé** ​\[eː\] only in a word final position | Fr _cliché_ ​> **klishéé** ​\[klɪˈʃeː\]. Fr _allée_ ​> **alléé** ​\[aˈleː\] | 
-//*ai// (French ai) | **ae** [ɛː] generally when changed to **ä** and **æ** in German and Scandinavian,​ the cognate in Folksprak will have **ae** | Note that the English cognate may have **ea** or **ai**, and the Dutch **ei**, **e **or **ai**: Fr //​déta// ​> **detael** [dɛˈtɛːl],​ Fr //​portrait// ​> **portraet** [pɔrˈtrɛːt],​ Fr //​saison// ​> **saeson** [sɛːˈzoːn]. Fr //​fontaine// ​> **fontaen** [fɔnˈtɛːn] | +_\*ai_ (French ai) | **ae** ​\[ɛː\] generally when changed to **ä** and **æ** in German and Scandinavian,​ the cognate in Folksprak will have **ae** | Note that the English cognate may have **ea** or **ai**, and the Dutch **ei**, **e** or **ai**: Fr _déta_ ​> **detael** ​\[dɛˈtɛːl\], Fr _portrait_ ​> **portraet** ​\[pɔrˈtrɛːt\], Fr _saison_ ​> **saeson** ​\[sɛːˈzoːn\]. Fr _fontaine_ ​> **fontaen** ​\[fɔnˈtɛːn\] | 
-//*eu// (French eu) > **oe** [øː] | This applies only to French eu. Græco-Latin eu remains as **eu** | Fr //​régisseur// ​> **regjissoer** [rɛʒɪˈsøːr]. Fr //​sérieux// ​> **serioes** [sɛrɪˈøːs]. Fr //​adieu// ​> **adioe** [adˈjøː] | +_\*eu_ (French eu) > **oe** ​\[øː\] | This applies only to French eu. Græco-Latin eu remains as **eu** | Fr _régisseur_ ​> **regjissoer** ​\[rɛʒɪˈsøːr\]. Fr _sérieux_ ​> **serioes** ​\[sɛrɪˈøːs\]. Fr _adieu_ ​> **adioe** ​\[adˈjøː\] | 
-//*ou// (French ou) | **u** [uː] or [ʊ] depending on following consonants (single or clusters) | Fr //​douche// ​> **dush** [dʊʃ]. Fr //​tour// ​> **tur** [tuːr]. Fr //​limousine// ​> **limusin** [lɪmʊˈsiːn]. | +_\*ou_ (French ou) | **u** \[uː\] or \\] depending on following consonants (single or clusters) | Fr _douche_ ​> **dush** ​\[dʊʃ\]. Fr _tour_ ​> **tur** ​\[tuːr\]. Fr _limousine_ ​> **limusin** ​\[lɪmʊˈsiːn\]. | 
-//*eu// (Græco-Latin eu) | **eu** [ɛʊ] | Unlike French ​//*eu//, Græco-Latin ​//*eu// remains unchanged: ​//​neurologo// ​> **neurolog** [nɛʊrɔˈloːg]. ​//​Europa// ​> **Europa** [ɛʊˈroːpa] | +_\*eu_ (Græco-Latin eu) | **eu** ​\[ɛʊ\] | Unlike French ​_\*eu_, Græco-Latin ​_\*eu_ remains unchanged: ​_neurologo_ ​> **neurolog** ​\[nɛʊrɔˈloːg\]. _Europa_ ​> **Europa** ​\[ɛʊˈroːpa\] | 
-//*æ// (Græco-Latin æ) | **é** [eː] or [ɛ] depending on following consonants (single or clusters) | Unlike German and Danish, but like American English, Dutch and Swedish, Græco-Latin ​//*æ// merges with **é**. L //​præcisus// ​//​precise// ​> **precis** [prɛˈʦiːs]. Latin //​æra// ​//​era// ​> **éra** [ˈeːra] | +_\*æ_ (Græco-Latin æ) | **é** ​\[eː\] or \\] depending on following consonants (single or clusters) | Unlike German and Danish, but like American English, Dutch and Swedish, Græco-Latin ​_\*æ_ merges with **é**. L _præcisus_ ​_precise_ ​> **precis** ​\[prɛˈʦiːs\]. Latin _æra_ ​_era_ > **éra** ​\[ˈeːra\] | 
-//*a// (from Latin //*-tas////*-tatem//) | **ae** [ɛː] | Latin //​universitas/​universitatem// ​//​universitate// ​> **universitaet** [ʊnɪvɛrsɪˈtɛːt]. L //​qualitas/​qualitatem// ​//​qualitate// ​> **kwalitaet** [kʋalɪˈtɛːt] | +_\*a_ (from Latin _\*-tas__\*-tatem_) | **ae** ​\[ɛː\] | Latin _universitas/universitatem_ ​_universitate_ ​> **universitaet** ​\[ʊnɪvɛrsɪˈtɛːt\]. L _qualitas/qualitatem_ ​_qualitate_ ​> **kwalitaet** ​\[kʋalɪˈtɛːt\] | 
-//*a// (from Latin *-alis) | **a** [aː] | Latin //​actualis// ​//​actual// ​> **aktual** [aktʊˈaːl],​ Latin //​realis// ​//​real// ​> **real** [rɛˈaːl] | +_\*a_ (from Latin \*-alis) | **a** \[aː\] | Latin _actualis_ ​_actual_ ​> **aktual** ​\[aktʊˈaːl\], Latin _realis_ ​_real_ ​> **real** ​\[rɛˈaːl\] | 
-//*-ar////-*er////-*-ir// (from Latin -are and other Romance verb infinitive suffixes) | **-aer-** [-ˈɛːr-] | //​diriger// ​> **dirigaere** [dɪrɪˈgɛːrə], ​//​nivellar// ​> **nivellaere** [nɪvɛˈlɛːrə] |+_\*-ar__\*-er__\*-ir_ (from Latin -are and other Romance verb infinitive suffixes) | **-aer-** ​\[-ˈɛːr-\] | _diriger_ ​> **dirigaere** ​\[dɪrɪˈgɛːrə\], _nivellar_ ​> **nivellaere** ​\[nɪvɛˈlɛːrə\] |
  
-==== German to Folksprak ==== 
  
-^ [de]-gramm ^ [fs]-gramm ^ examples | +## German to Folksprak
-| //-ö-// | **ö** or sometimes **e** | //hören// > **höre**, //schön// > **skön**, //zwölf// > **tvelv** | +
-| //-ü-// | **ö**,​**ü** or sometimes **u** | //grün// > **grön**, //Küste// > **küst**, //müssen// > **mute** | +
-| //-au-// | **u**, **ö**, **o** | //Haus// > **hus**, //Haupt// > **hövd**, //auch// > **ok** | +
-| //-eu-// | **ü** | //neu// > **nü**, //deutsch// > **dütisk** | +
-| //-ei-// | **i** or sometimes **e** | //Eis// > **is**, //mein// > **min**, //frei// > **fri**, //ein(e)// > **en** | +
-| //sch-$-// | **sk-$** | //​schulden//​ > **skulde**, //scheren// > **skere** | +
-| //​sch-&​-//​ | **s-&** | //schwarz// > **svart**, //Schwamm// > **svam** | +
-| //-sch-//, //-sch// | **sk** | //​herrschen//​ > **herske**, //​dänisch//​ > **danisk** | +
-| //-chs//, //-chs-// | **ks** | //Fuchs// > **fuks**, //sechs// > **seks**, //Ochse// > **oks** | +
-| //-ch// | **k**, **g** | //ich// > **ek**, //Buch// > **buk**, //hoch// > **hog** | +
-| //-ch-// | **k**, **g** or elimination | //machen// > **make**, //Specht// > **spegt**, //nicht// > **nit** | +
-| //z-//, //-z-//, //-z//, //-tz-//, //-tz// | **t** | //Zahl// > **tal**, //Holz// > **holt**, //Katze// > **kat**, //Netz// > **net** | +
-| //-ss-//, //-ß// | **t** | //hassen// > **hate**, //müssen// > **mute**, //groß// > **grot** | +
-| //w-//, //-w-// | **v** | //wollen// > **vile**, //Wolf// > **volf**, //zwei// > **tve** | +
-| //-b-// | **v** | //haben// > **have**, //leben// > **leve** | +
-| //-f-// | **p** | //auf// > **up**, //helfen// > **helpe** |+
  
-==== English to Folksprak ====+^ \[de\]-gramm ^ \[fs\]-gramm ^ examples | 
 +| _-ö-_ | **ö** or sometimes **e** | _hören_ > **höre**, _schön_ > **skön**, _zwölf_ > **tvelv** | 
 +| _-ü-_ | **ö**,​**ü** or sometimes **u** | _grün_ > **grön**, _Küste_ > **küst**, _müssen_ > **mute** | 
 +| _-au-_ | **u**, **ö**, **o** | _Haus_ > **hus**, _Haupt_ > **hövd**, _auch_ > **ok** | 
 +| _-eu-_ | **ü** | _neu_ > **nü**, _deutsch_ > **dütisk** | 
 +| _-ei-_ | **i** or sometimes **e** | _Eis_ > **is**, _mein_ > **min**, _frei_ > **fri**, _ein(e)_ > **en** | 
 +| _sch-$-_ | **sk-$** | _schulden_ > **skulde**, _scheren_ > **skere** | 
 +| _sch-&​-_ | **s-&** | _schwarz_ > **svart**, _Schwamm_ > **svam** | 
 +| _-sch-_, _-sch_ | **sk** | _herrschen_ > **herske**, _dänisch_ > **danisk** | 
 +| _-chs_, _-chs-_ | **ks** | _Fuchs_ > **fuks**, _sechs_ > **seks**, _Ochse_ > **oks** | 
 +| _-ch_ | **k**, **g** | _ich_ > **ek**, _Buch_ > **buk**, _hoch_ > **hog** | 
 +| _-ch-_ | **k**, **g** or elimination | _machen_ > **make**, _Specht_ > **spegt**, _nicht_ > **nit** | 
 +| _z-_, _-z-_, _-z_, _-tz-_, _-tz_ | **t** | _Zahl_ > **tal**, _Holz_ > **holt**, _Katze_ > **kat**, _Netz_ > **net** | 
 +| _-ss-_, _-ß_ | **t** | _hassen_ > **hate**, _müssen_ > **mute**, _groß_ > **grot** | 
 +| _w-_, _-w-_ | **v** | _wollen_ > **vile**, _Wolf_ > **volf**, _zwei_ > **tve** | 
 +| _-b-_ | **v** | _haben_ > **have**, _leben_ > **leve** | 
 +| _-f-_ | **p** | _auf_ > **up**, _helfen_ > **helpe** |
  
-Since modern English has a very unphonetical orthography (due to various reasons), the following transitions are not as "​typical"​ as they are for "​German to Folksprak"​ or "​Bokmål to Folksprak"​. They are rather considered as //​possible//​ transitions. 
  
-^ [en]-gramm ^ [fs]-gramm ^ examples ^ +## English ​to Folksprak
-| //e(e)// | **i** | //we// > **vi**, //free// > **fri** | +
-| //ea// | **e** | //instead// > **insted** | +
-| //oo// | **u** | //good// > **gud**, //blood// > **blud**, //room// > **rum** | +
-| //ou// | **u** | //group// > **grup**, //out// > **ut**, //our// > **ur**, //round// > **rund** | +
-| //w(h)// | **v** | //water// > **vater**, //to will// > **vile**, //white// > **vit**, //what// > **vat** | +
-| //th// | **d** | //that// > **dat**, //there// > **der**, //the// > **de** | +
-| //c// | **k** | //to can// > **kane**, //to come// > **kome** | +
-| //sh// | **sk** or sometimes **s** | //fish// > **fisk**, //shoe// > **sku**, //shall// > **skal** |+
  
-==== Norwegian ​(Bokmål) to Folksprak ​====+Since modern English has a very unphonetical orthography ​(due to various reasons), the following transitions are not as "​typical"​ as they are for "​German to Folksprak"​ or "​Bokmål ​to Folksprak". They are rather considered as _possible_ transitions.
  
-^ [nb]-gramm ^ [fs]-gramm ^ examples ^ +\[en\]-gramm ^ \[fs\]-gramm ^ examples ^ 
-//​å// ​| **o** or sometimes ​**u** | //å gå// > **goe**, //​nå// ​> **no** | +_e(e)_ ​| **i** | _we_ > **vi**, _free_ > **fri** | 
-//o// | **u** | //​for// ​> **fur**, //​blod// ​> **blud**, //å troe// ​> **true** | +| _ea_ | **e** | _instead_ > **insted** | 
-//y// | **i** or sometimes ​**u** | //​syve// ​> **siv**, //​ny// ​> **nu**, //å frykte// ​> **fruke** | +| _oo_ | **u** | _good_ ​> **gud**, _blood_ ​> **blud**, _room_ > **rum** | 
-//​ø// ​| **o** | //​død// ​> **dod**, //å høre// ​> **hore** | +_ou_ | **u** | _group_ ​> **grup**, _out_ > **ut**, _our_ > **ur**, _round_ > **rund** | 
-//​æ// ​| **e** | //å lære// ​> **lere** |+_w(h)_ ​| **v** | _water_ > **vater**, _to will_ > **vile**, _white_ > **vit**, _what_ > **vat** | 
 +| _th_ | **d** | _that_ ​> **dat**, _there_ ​> **der**, _the_ > **de** | 
 +_c_ | **k** | _to can_ > **kane**, _to come_ > **kome** | 
 +_sh_ | **sk** or sometimes **s** | _fish_ > **fisk**, _shoe_ > **sku**, _shall_ ​> **skal** |
  
-==== General guidelines ==== 
  
-Words should be: +## Norwegian ​(Bokmålto Folksprak 
-  - As internationally recognisable ​(within the Germanic worldand/or frequent as possible + 
-  - Not confusable with other words +^ \[nb\]-gramm ^ \[fs\]-gramm ^ examples ^ 
-  Ideallynot false friends +| _å_ | **o** or sometimes **u** | _å gå_ > **goe**_nå_ > **no** | 
-  - Structurally simple+| _o_ | **u** | _for_ > **fur**, _blod_ > **blud**, _å troe_ > **true** | 
 +| _y_ | **i** or sometimes **u** | _syve_ > **siv**, _ny_ > **nu**, _å frykte_ > **fruke** | 
 +| _ø_ | **o** | _død_ > **dod**, _å høre_ > **hore** | 
 +| _æ_ | **e** | _å lære_ > **lere** | 
  
guidelines_for_word_formation.txt · Last modified: 2020/05/31 13:31 by fenris